Hydrocodone 5mg/100mg is an opioid pain medication. An opioid is sometimes called a narcotic. Zohydro ER and Hysingla ER are extended-release forms of hydrocodone that are used for around-the-clock treatment of severe pain. Extended-release hydrocodone is not for use on an as-needed basis for pain.
Hydrocodone acts as a weak agonist at OP1, OP2, and OP3 opiate receptors within the central nervous system (CNS). Hydrocodone primarily affects OP3 receptors, which are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as modulators, both positive and negative, of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine, and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids such as hydrocodone also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin, and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as morphinans. These are polycyclic compounds with a four-ring skeleton with three condensed six-member rings forming a partially hydrogenated phenanthrene moiety, one of which is aromatic while the two others are alicyclic.